Friday, November 13, 2009

I created this piece as an illustration for my concept of a volcano. I wanted to show the lava in an abstract and colorful way.

Friday, October 30, 2009


We had to draw a camera and then photoshop it. I decided to do a Polaroid camera and then make the developing picture a photo of me taken last year. I learned a lot about photoshop and how to transform a drawing.

Thursday, October 29, 2009

So You Think You Can't Draw?

We had to draw a castle for our "So You Think You Can't Draw?" project. I decided to draw a castle on the of a cliff looking out to an extension of land and a border of mountains. The inspiration for the cliff came from a scene in the movie "Pride and Prejudice." I think that it worked really well and added another dimension to the drawing.

Tuesday, September 29, 2009

Thursday, September 24, 2009

Original Perspective

Photoshop Study

For this perspective, I changed the color of the ceiling as well as small details, such as the lamp, star, and curtain.

Photoshop Study

For this pespective, I changed many more major details. I really just wanted to play with color and see how different colors looked in the space. I changed the smaller curtains to a yellow color and the dining room chairs to brown. I did try to stay to the same color palette with a couple extra colors that paralleled some of the colors. The chair I changed to purple which was off the palette, but went well with the curtains and changed the lounge on the patio to a red to match the interior walls.

Photoshop Study

I really did not want to change much in this space, so I went with a sphere and changed the hue and saturation within the sphere. I was really just playing with photoshop in this perspective.

Tuesday, September 22, 2009

Wednesday, April 22, 2009

Action Verbs

Speculate: When designing, the designer speculates measurements and how the final product is to look. They start out with a design or inspiration, then work from that to come up with the structure in the end. Guadet wrote that the first requirement in designs is to understand the function of the building and to accommodate it fully (Roth 501). He also said “you will seek character, which contributes to beauty by creating variety” (Roth 501). Both of these mean that a designer needs to speculate how the structure will be used and then add character or beauty to accentuate the function.
Compose: When designing a structure or composing a piece of art, the designer or artist needs to arrange all parts to make up the final result. Composure is important in an artwork or structure because all aspects are linked together and flow throughout the space. Guadet wrote “Composition must be good first, but it must be beautiful as well. You must therefore compose a building with a view towards its usefulness and its beauty” (Roth 501).

Energize: A space needs to have a certain energy so that the viewers can reflect on their own emotions how to evaluate the space. A designer designs with a certain lighting or celebration that sets the mood and gives the space the energy that they are trying to portray. In the late Baroque and Rococo architecture, the colors arise not so much from the natural weathering of materials but from applied paint that must periodically be renewed (Roth 81). Nonetheless, such environments have reinstituted a measure of vivacity and energy, which was suppressed by the austerity of International Modernism in the mid-twentieth century (Roth 81).
Shape: Every structure always has a shape, whether it be a box with four walls and corners or the Disney Concert Hall with many different curves and sections. The designer or architect decides on the shape and then moves through many different construction techniques to form it to that shape. Shape can also be influence by the use of the space. An alternative is to design a building so that any possible future activity can be accommodated (Roth 6).

Stretch: When designing a structure, the designer needs to compensate for stretching over the years. Much like an item of clothing stretches over time, a building can also stretch. Years of wear and tear can have major effects on structure. They begin to erode and crack as the earth moves. So a designer or architect needs to design keeping in mind the eventual harm to the structure over time.

Friday, April 17, 2009

Reflections Unit

Design is based on reflections of other structures and on the surrounding society. Some designers decide not to reflect on their surroundings, which in turn can make a different structure entirely. Politics, society, and styles of the time that a structure is designed have a major influence on how they are built.
Thomas Jefferson reflected on French architecture when designing his home, Monticello, in Charlottesville, Virginia. At first he began with the architecture from colonial American designs, but once he visited France, he completely changed his design. He wanted a home that reflected nature, but was also very sophisticated. He used his main entrance as a personal museum with statues, animal heads, and Indian memorabilia. He was influenced by a new architecture in France, which used domes, so he added one simply for viewer enjoyment. The dome is not used except to add light to the room, which Jefferson called the “sky-room” (The House). He was also greatly influenced by the use of skylights. He installed a skylight in his own bedroom as well as thirteen others. Jefferson was greatly influenced by French architecture, which is why Monticello was designed, built, designed again, and finally built again.
Frank Lloyd Wright went in a different direction from American architecture when designing Falling Water. He was the first to build an entire house out of concrete and steel. He also wanted his design to reflect nature, but also be sophisticated. He used terraces outside of every room to encourage the owners, the Kaufmanns, to spend as much time outdoors as possible. The Kaufmanns originally wanted their house to be built facing the waterfall, but Wright decided that he wanted the house to be built above the waterfall. His design was unlike any other in America at the time due to the materials and also the use of a great room. Great rooms were uncommon during that time, but Wright wanted to influence relaxation as well as family time. It was also great for entertaining, which was something that the Kaufmanns really enjoyed. Wright’s modern design has influenced architecture today with the use of natural appeal and use of materials.
Designers like Frank Lloyd Wright and Thomas Jefferson wanted to escape the usual design of American during their times, and step out of societies idea of architecture. They both were from completely different periods in history and completely different societies, but they both were able to break rules and change architecture for the future. Their reflections on their surroundings influenced them to react differently in their architecture.


Wednesday, April 15, 2009

Road Trip

Roots: Thomas Jefferson took root in Virginia, but designed his house using French ideas. He stepped away from American Colonial designs and took ideas from France for the entire house design. He originally designed, built, then after his trip to France, he redesigned and rebuilt. He wanted his home to be different, which is why he used a dome structure, skylights, and dumbwaiters for serving as well as for the clock in the main entrance. Another related development, with roots in the imagination of the British Archigramists and Japanese Metabolists in the early 1960s, was the mega structures of the second half of the twentieth century, huge buildings encompassing many connected, functionally related activities, often made possible by the use of a repetitive, large-scale structural system (Roth 577).Congruence: Frank Lloyd Wright built Falling Water in congruence with nature by using natural materials, such as: concrete and steel. He also built Falling Water with the idea of spending time outdoors for the Kaufmanns. The Kaufmanns originally wanted the house to be built facing the waterfall, but Wright wanted to build the house over the waterfall. His idea of building the house over the water put the house in congruence with nature by making it part of the mountain and overlooking the water.
Concept: Jefferson and Wright began with two different concepts and built two houses that were completely different for their times. Jefferson wanted his home to reflect nature, but also wanted to establish French ideas in his design. Wright also designed with a modern concept, but also wanted to encourage the Kaufmanns to spend as much time outdoors as possible with verandas outside of each room. Architecture is the art in which we walk, the art that envelops us (Roth 47). Frank Lloyd Wright believed space was the essence of architecture and discovered that the same idea had been expressed centuries earlier by Lao-tzu, and paraphrased in 1906 by Okakura Kakuzo in The Book of Tea (Roth 47). The reality of architecture lay not in the solid elements that seem to make it, but in the space defined by those elements: “the reality of a room, for instance, was to be found in the vacant space enclosed by the roof and walls, not in the roof and walls themselves” (Roth 47).

Jefferson and Wright both used natural materials to build their structures. Jefferson had the resources to make the bricks from Virginia mud and nails on the property, the wood was from the surrounding area as well as the stone materials being quarried on Jefferson’s land. Wright also used natural materials, such as: concrete and steel to build the entire house. This was different from any house structure of the time and shed new light on the use of concrete to build. Since the mid-twentieth century, a number of manufactured materials have permitted exotic construction techniques (Roth 41).

Compression : Release: Jefferson used compression and release with his clocks and serving ideas. He used dumbwaiters from the basement for the clock in the main entrance as well as the clock above the front door. He also came up with new concepts of serving with dumbwaiters behind the fireplace in the dining area to bring wine bottles from the cellar in the basement. Jefferson wanted to keep his servants out of sight of guests, so he used revolving doors and many different dumbwaiters for different purposes. Wright also used compression and release in a different way by using a porous material like concrete, which is now beginning to release into the stream a little each year. The weight of the structure is causing it to fall a little every year, which Wright may not have thought of when designing the structure.

Thursday, April 9, 2009

Opus 10

Craft: The craft in building Monticello and Falling Water was seen through the clean lines and difference from other buildings of the times. Thomas Jefferson borrowed ideas for his home design from the French, then designed and redesigned his home to fit the time but also allow for new technology, such as built-ins. Jefferson’s craft was also shown through the self-sufficiency of his plantation. He had the technology available to make Virginia mud bricks, nails, beer, wine, and gardening. Frank L. Wright also used clean lines in the way that he placed the windows along the rooms and by the use specially designed light fixtures and furniture. Wright used natural elements to build this home, such as concrete and steel. This was the first time that concrete had been used to build a house in that time.

Falling Water and Monticello both utilized space. Wright thought that nine foot ceilings were a waste of space, so he shortened the ceilings to the average height, then lowered half of the ceiling to draw the eye to the windows. Jefferson also used new techniques in building, such as connecting nature with indoors. He used his own version of linoleum flooring painted green in the entrance hall, but also painted unnoticeable acorns into the fireplace.
Virtual: Wright and Jefferson created the feeling of being outside by the use of multiple windows in each room of both structures. They both wanted to encourage outdoor activities by using windows and verandas reaching out into nature. The use of windows and glass doors invited the guest to enjoy the nature waiting to be explored.

Private: Jefferson was embarrassed by the use of slaves and servants. He created corridors under the house that kept the kitchen, cellars, and workshops out of sight. He also used dumbwaiters and revolving doors to send food and wine to the dining room for the butler to deliver, rather than having servants wandering in and out of the dining area. Jefferson also took one third of the house for his own private use, which included his office, bedroom, and library. With multiple guests coming and going out of the Jefferson home, he wanted to establish clear places for private family. Wright also established areas for guests and family by using dark hallways that discouraged guests from entering private areas. He also built a separate house just for guests. Falling Water was also more private than Monticello in the way that it was embedded into the woods, rather than sitting on top of a hill.

Jefferson and Wright used the language of the time in their designs that borrowed from other designs. They both used line weights in framing and sharp edges with horizontal and vertical lines. Resources of the time, such as: brick, wood, and clay, were also the language of the time due to how the materials were used in other surrounding structures.

Wednesday, April 8, 2009

The Proximity Hotel

The Proximity hotel was designed with the basis of sustainability, but also wanted to be functional and beautiful. The owner, Dennis Quaintance, wanted an elegant, but environmentally safe hotel, which in turn became the Proximity hotel located in Greensboro, NC. The Proximity Hotel was designed on the basis of sustainability, visual interest, and an impact on surroundings.
The name for the Proximity came from the Proximity Cotton Mill developed by the Cone brothers in 1896 (History). The hotel was designed around the idea of an old factory or mill, such as the Proximity Cotton Mill located down the road from the hotel (Design). Bradshaw Orell, the designer of the hotel, took the idea of an old factory and designed every detail of the building, down to the custom furniture. The unusual design process was grounded on the notion that the process is more important than the outcome (Design). The building’s design and construction followed guidelines of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System, the nationally accepted benchmark for the design, construction, and operation of high performance green buildings (Sustainable). LEED promotes a whole-building approach to sustainability by recognizing performance in six key areas of human and environmental health: sustainable site development, water savings, energy efficiency, materials selection, indoor environmental quality, and innovation in design (Sustainability).
The Proximity hotel is one of the newest hotels in Greensboro. It was built alongside a polluted stream that was cleaned up and now adds visual interest to the hotel itself. When driving by the Proximity or pulling into the parking lot at night, the viewer is in awe at the magnitude, but also the beauty of the structure. The designers used large windows in each of the rooms to allow for an abundance of natural light to flow in, but also for electric light to flow out to illuminate the structure at night. The hotel’s design and outward appearance adds a new flare to hotels of Greensboro that you may not see elsewhere in the city.
The Proximity hotel is a leader in green and sustainable building for Greensboro, but also for the world. The sustainable practices used can influence how hotels and other structures are built in the future. The use of solar panels to heat water, natural light, recycled air from outside used in air conditioning, and a green, vegetated rooftop above the restaurant are some of the many ways that the hotel has encouraged sustainability (Sustainability). Hotels being built in the future will begin to look into sustainable practices and will begin to build with those in mind.
The Proximity Hotel was designed on the basis of sustainability, visual interest, and an impact on surroundings. This hotel is a leader in sustainability for Greensboro, but also for the world. The ideas that this hotel came up with to allow for a sustainable hotel will be used in the future as the world is going green and thinking more about how construction affects our environment.


Wednesday, April 1, 2009


Rotation: Rotation can be the essential to a design. Being able to take a project and spin it around to compose a new idea that may have never been considered before. Many of the Greek and Roman designers sought to showcase the façade of their building designs, but the Renaissance and Gothic architects brought a whole new concept of circling around a space and absorbing all aspects. Cathedrals were built inside and out to be enjoyed, but also for the viewer to be able to revolve and evolve in the space while absorbing the massive beauty.

Movement: A piece of architecture that seems as if it is flowing and all parts are working together to seem as though they are moving together allows for the viewer to be transfixed by the piece. The Trevi fountain by Bernini was carved to look as if it flows and moves like water. The statue in the center with the horses and men on either side exemplify the cascading waterfall that the fountain is making along with the placement of rocks that allow for the water to flow freely. The Baldacchino also take the ides of movement and carves it into stone. When looking at the Baldacchino, your eye is moving up and down with spiral, it is as if it is spiraling from the floor. These revolutions are so interconnected that they can be thought of as operating in a circle, each feeding into the next (Roth 439).
Reflection: When you look in a mirror, you see a reflection of yourself. This reflection can either make you happy with yourself or reveal flaws that need to be changed. During the Revolution in Colonial North America, designers took ideas from previous architecture and came with their own rendition of how the design should be. Versatility in planning to accommodate social events was the motivating force for this change (Blakemore 250). The assembly as noted previously, involved activities that took place simultaneously in different rooms, thus requiring a circuit of rooms (Blakemore 250). In the Parson Capen House, the designer used the idea of a “hall and parlor plan,” which distinguished the places for family and the places for guests. Much like the Roman houses, which distinguished the hall for servants to do work and the rest of the house for family or guest enjoyment. Thomas Jefferson also reflected on past ideas, like the Pantheon when designing his home, the Monticello. The façade looks much like the Pantheon, while the house is still separated into servant’s and living quarters. The White House also borrowed upon the Roman idea of columns and dome structures.
The image “” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.Source: Every idea or concept has a source of inspiration and influence. No great architect or designer began building from nothing, they all had ideas flowing either from seeing another design or from taking pieces and parts of their favorite designs, then pasting them together to form one solid idea. Designers of the Revolution in America took ideas from the Renaissance and Gothic architecture, then applied it to their designs.Illumination: Light and depth are used in many designs to illuminate a structure to enhance the visual aspects or to give dimensionality. Light enhances the mood that is set in the space or structure. The landscape of a structure can illuminate the space by adding dimension or extension of the space. A complete union of the landscape with the residence is sought (Blakemore 250). The landscape became even more important than it had been in the Baroque period, during which the landscape was conceived as a continuation of the mansion’s classical rule (Blakemore 250). The simple landscape of the Villa Giulia illuminates the building façade without taking away from the architectural aspects of the structure.

Summary: A structure needs a source of inspiration, then the design evolves so that there is movement in the structure and interior requires rotation in order for the viewer to capture and reflect on the essence of the design. Illumination can also be added by use of landscape or design techniques.

Friday, March 27, 2009

Alternatives Unit Summary

The Middle Ages was the time of the Renaissance and Baroque periods. The Renaissance was a time of rebirth and reformation. Designers and architects were exploring new boundaries and breaking rules set by previous styles and architects. Religion was a major motivating source, which is why most architecture was for religious purposes, such as: St. Peter’s church, which was larger motivated by Christianity. The Renaissance began moving outside in courtyards for political purposes. The Ospedale Innocenti celebrated the public square and gave an idea to what designers were addressing in Renaissance building. The Palazza Rucellai collapsed the history and design of the Coliseum and applied it to their design by the use of the columns and levels. The Renaissance also brought in the idea of different views. Compared to the façade views used before, the Renaissance designers began showing a whole second façade along the sides of the buildings. This allowed for more dimensionality in the designs and also to give depth to the buildings other than the interior.
Along with the Renaissance came the abstract and functional idea of Villas. Villas became the working farms to raise food to feed Venice. They were organized around a central circular space. The Villa Giulia was a landscape, garden scape, and building scape linked together to form one space. The interiors and furniture used in the Villas were to bring order out of chaos and to bring things from the past and embed them in the present.
Many architects and designers began testing boundaries and breaking rules. Michelangelo Buonarroti painted the Capella Sistina at the Pope’s request, but began using the idea of disintegrating the wall in the paint so that it provides an illusion of no walls and transforming the viewer into a new space. In the Laurentian Library Vestibule, Michelangelo pushed the columns into the wall, then cut out the space around then to let them be columns for decoration and support. This was much different from the past idea of columns that had to be seen all around with decoration and mainly used for support. He also used the idea of a cascading waterfall for the stairs to give the idea of pouring forth knowledge from the library.
Borromini was a Baroque architect that began thinking outside of the box by trying to fit the St. Maria Pace into a courtyard where there was no room to place a church. He also tried to cram as much fluidity in the St. Ivo as possible while embedding the Trinity into the design itself. Bernini was also a Baroque architect who designed the Trevi fountain by using the idea of water flowing throughout the entire fountain structure.
These designers thought outside their boxes created by architects and architecture before them by taking their ideas and making them their own. The Renaissance was a time to renew architecture from the ideas that were established by the Greeks and Romans years before and applying that to new construction. The Renaissance and Baroque came together by bringing new ideas and adding ornate detail to the designs. These styles helped in establishing architecture for today and the future by giving way to thinking outside the box.

Wednesday, March 25, 2009

Grammar : Syntax

[Re]Visions: For proper design, revision and vision are necessities. Designers need inspiration to design and then take that inspiration and modify it to work better in the space or environment. Revisions are also made to existing architecture. Renaissance architects of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries endeavored to create new rational, mathematically describable forms based on what they understood of the Classical architecture of ancient Rome (Roth 397). They even invented a term to describe their decisive break with the Gothic past, saying their work marked a renaissance, or rebirth (Roth 397).
Audience: Architecture and design are meant to be enjoyed by all viewers. Buildings and cathedrals used to be built for enjoyment by using large scale that allows for the viewer to be transformed into a different atmosphere and puts the viewer at awe of the space. “Illusionisic architectural painting was aimed at extending real architecture into an imaginary space” (Blakemore 159).
Character: Character is what sets a piece of architecture from another. It is the identity of a piece of architecture that gives it personality. Renaissance architects and designers looked to make their designs different and monumental from all other designs. Annibale’s representations were vital, animated, dramatic, and monumental (Blakemore 158). Every designer desires to put character in their designs and to be able to call them their own or make them stand out from the rest.

Transition: Flowing and moving through time and space is transition. Change in styles or attitudes from one to the other or back again makes up transition. To eighteenth century French critics, the curving, heavily embellished architecture of the seventeenth century Rome, with its corkscrew columns and bent entablatures, was as much a deviation from the paper architectural norms as a twisted pear that deviated from the spherical norm, and they applied to that architecture the derogatory Portuguese term used for misshapen pearls: barocco, “baroque” (Roth 398). The transition of names and titles of the time periods marked those times for future reference. Gradually, however, the term baroque came to be used by late-nineteenth-century art historians such as Heinrich Wolfflin in a more positive, descriptive sense, to describe any art that was elaborated, embellished, and complex, compared to preceding simpler forms (Roth 398). But also, these time periods became known by their change in architectural styles.

Datum: A datum line is a point of reference. For architecture, the datum line keeps everything straight and accurate. Drawings and design are kept precise by including a datum line.

Summary: Architects and designers think of the audience and the vision they are trying to capture when designing, then they revise the idea, add in the character and transitions from one space to another. They also use datum lines to distinguish the symmetry and balance in the design.

Friday, March 20, 2009

Prededent Analysis 2

I. Plan View (1/4”:1’)- ink on Vellum
II. Elevation (1/4”:1’)- ink on Vellum
III. North Section (1/4”:1’)- ink on Vellum
IV. South Section (1/4”:1’)- ink on Vellum
V. West Section (1/4”:1’)- ink on Vellum
VI. East Section (1/4”:1’)- ink on Vellum
VII. Orthographic- ink on Vellum
VIII. Isometric- ink on Vellum
IX. Line Drawing- ink on Vellum
X. Perspective Interior- ink on Vellum
XI. Floor Plan- ink on Vellum
I. Introduction
a. The Proximity hotel was designed on the basis of sustainability, visual interest, and
impact on surroundings.
b. Location
c. Purpose
II. Background
a. History and details of planning process
b. Inspiration drawn from surroundings
III. Design
a. Sustainability
b. Visual interest aspects including decorations, outward appearance, and other various
IV. Impact
a. How did this hotel and green building affect the area?
b. How will this effect future construction and design?
V. Conclusion
a. Thesis repeated
b. Wrap up of ideas and paragraphs

Wednesday, March 18, 2009

P Week

Periphery: Periphery is the outer edge of an area or object. The outer edge can also be called negative space. Negative space can be accentuated with color or design or left alone. Sometimes leaving the negative space or periphery alone can accentuate the positive space better than by adding something that could seem unnecessary. In Renaissance designing, the idea of surrounding doors and walls with columns and pilasters or elaborate decoration was prominently used. They were also used to separate different aspects of the walls in order to unify the design. Sometimes engaged columns instead of pilasters were used to separate panel sections (Blakemore 137). For the scrap booked layout for my Unity project, the different colored backgrounds and framing was unnecessary and took away from the different views of the projects themselves. Although, it was laid out precisely and would have looked good in a scrap book, it was unnecessary for the project at the time. Just like the scrap book page for the Unity project was too much, the graphic done for the Dialogue project was effective because of the emphasis put on the picture with little aspects that did not take away the focus on the diagram.

Portfolio: A portfolio can be the actual paper or cloth case that loose papers are kept in or it can be the loose papers in the case. For our portfolios in drafting, we collaborated all of the work done for the semester up until that time. A portfolio can include anything done in a certain time period or can be collected over years of work. Some use portfolios for job interviews, which can showcase work created or work done in the past, much like a resume. The typical architect of the Renaissance in Italy was exceptionally versatile in that he performed services not only as an architect but also as a painter, sculptor, furniture designer, etc. (Blakemore 91). An architect’s portfolio of work in the Renaissance needed to be versatile in order to have work. Architecture as an independent, rational structure frame is transformed into a unity or fusion of the visual arts propaganda (Roth 404). Architecture has become but one constituent part in what was “a total work of art” (Roth 404). All parts of architecture combined make up a portfolio of its own. Process: The process of design is much like the process of writing a story. They both take inspiration and consideration for all parts included, whether they be furniture or characters. Different periods of time took inspiration from other periods and countries to come up with their own revised version. In western countries stylistic progression was from Romanesque to Early Christian, thence to the Romanesque and Gothic of the Middle Ages (Blakemore 91). Inspiration was also used for statues and other structures like Bernini’s Ecstasy of St. Teresa. Bernini re-creates a moment, conveying it in carnal terms so that the observer could easily grasp a transcendent spiritual experience through its mundane physical counterpart (Roth 403). For the Pathways, Edges, and Boundaries project, the Desert group had to draw up ideas of what we each thought would work in the median assigned. The drawings represent process by the ideas flowing onto paper and collaboration of ideas, then some being used in the project. For the Place for Twelve Twigs project from last semester, the process was the amount of iterations done to reach the final product. Process requires multiple iterations and revisions to reach the final goal.
Perspective: Perspective is the way that a person sees from a particular point. When looking into a room, some things seem closer while others seem farther away, but really it has to do with the direction and point the person is standing at, by the way they perceive the room. One-point and two-point perspectives are mostly seen, while three-point or even four-point are not seen as often. One-point perspective is where everything seems to meet at one point on the horizon line, while two-point perspective is when everything meets at two points on the horizon line.
Professional: Professionalism means that a presentation is as neat and understandable as possible. The layout of a project on a board can be done sloppily or be very put together to where the viewer can tell that a lot of time and effort went into the actual planning and placement of many aspects on the board. Professionalism can also be shown by the use of a border on a drafted floor plan. The border should show the name of the designer, title of the project, and date of when completed. The border may be simple, but it really helps to professionally complete the project.

Summary: A project or portfolio should be professional, but also show progression. The viewer should be able to understand the concept from many different perspectives. They should also not be distracted by the periphery, but be able to focus on the project or work itself.

Wednesday, March 4, 2009

Macro: Micro

Impression: The Greeks and Romans made a huge impression in architecture. The Renaissance time followed many of the same basics that the Romans set out in their architecture. The columns, scale, and materials were widely used hundreds of years after the Roman era. The architects of the Renaissance used the Coliseum as an archetype for the Palazzo Rucellai. They collapsed history and put it in their design by using the different columns on every level. They also used the idea of a dome to represent perfection of divinity. To theorists such as Alberti, the circle and the centralized plan generated from it were highly evocative religious symbols of the perfection of divinity, forms found also in the proportions of the human body patterned, so scripture declared, in God’s image (Roth 365). A dome, placed over the center, became the outward manifestation of this centrally focused plan (Roth 365).Detail: The Greeks and Romans were very detailed in their designs and elaborate in decoration. They used bright colors to paint the outside of their structures, such as the Parthenon. They were also very detailed in the interior as well as the exterior. The Pantheon has an elaborate interior with an open center dome that acts as a sundial. In the portal:panels created for Studio, every detail was explained and necessary to the design. The design for the Foust building on campus is very detailed with the raised roof in the lobby, the older aspects, and the archways of the entrance are known to the building alone. Many of the newer buildings on campus mimic the design and use the details of the Foust building. In Renaissance building, the circle and square became the basic design modules of their architecture, with the boundaries of these modules being delineated by classical columns, arches, and entablatures derived from Roman sources (Roth 362). Renaissance architects sought clearly expressed numerical relationships in their designs, recalling the mysticism of Pythagoras and his followers (Roth 362).

Porch-Court-Hearth: The porch-court-hearth was developed by the Greeks and is still used today in modern buildings. The porch acts as the entrance to the structure, which leads the viewer into the court. The court can be characterized as the open space where people congregate for religious or political purposes. The hearth is the center of the structure. Much like a home the porch is the entrance, or front door, the court could be the living or family room, and the hearth could be the kitchen which is the center of the household where everyone always gathers.
Composition: Beauty was seen to rest in the careful arrangement of proportionally related parts (Roth 353). The structure or make-up of the building is the composition. Gothic architecture was an assembly of parts worked out for each building individually (Roth 353). All the intricate parts of a cathedral or temple makes up the composition. The façade, narthex, nave, aisle, choir, ambulatory, and chevette are all parts of a cathedral and without each one, there would be no grandeur or awe in the structure. The cathedrals were a race to see who could build the largest, most elaborate cathedral during that time. Some builders or architects would leave out important structual parts, like flying buttresses, and without that part, the structure falls. A composition relies on every part and needs each part to function properly. Just like without the columns on the Parthenon, it would never be able to stand or it would not be as massive. For our design, the triangles made up most of the composition and the shadows from the cut out triangles in the top added a new detail that mimicked the shadows portrayed on the Pyramids at Giza.
Diagram: Diagrams are important to building and structure. The plan view of a building can tell a lot of what is on the inside of a structure or even what materials are used to build and dimensions. The diagram for the Foust building shows the circulation through the first floor and the immediate outer edge of the building. The traffic flow is important to a building because it shows what areas are used the most and why. For the Pathways, Edges, and Boundaries project has required many different diagrams for traffic flow through the parking lot, whether it be human or automotive. Diagrams play a huge part in development as well as in understanding a structure.

Summary: Architecture is a composition made up of details, whether small or big, that make an impression on the world surrounding it. A structure can include a porch, court, and hearth that can make it a sort of diagram. Or it could be as simple as an apartment in New York, with open space and no dimensionality.

Sunday, March 1, 2009

Foundations Unit Summary

The Egyptians became a foundation for architecture today. With monuments and temples, such as: Queen Hatshepsut’s temple at Deir el-Bahri and the Pyramids at Giza. The templeof Hatshepsut used columns, which introduced the order for columns to the Greeks and the Romans. They came up with the order of the Ionic, Doric, Corinthian, and Composite. Many of the temples built by the Romans used the Ionic order, which was the simplest order out of the four. The Ionic order allowed for the rest of the temple to be seen without the distraction of the outside columns. The Egyptians came up with an adaptive use of buildings with a focus on interiors. The Ionic order also allowed for the surroundings to be clearly seen, which was the Egyptians intent by always working with the site. They also use the idea of making the building an external shell containing integrated and finished interiors. The Greeks took this idea and ran with it by the building of the Acropolis and most importantly, the Parthenon. The Acropolis used the surroundings by the different buildings and the city in the distance. There is not much greenery surrounding the buildings, which was made up for by the elaborate paintings decorating the exterior. The Porch of Maidens on the Erechtheion, faces the Parthenon which points the viewer to the centerpiece of the Acropolis. The Propylaia and the Temple of Athena Nike also help to point viewers and guests to the Parthenon by announcing their arrival and opening at the exact spot that leads to the main point. The Romans also used the idea of emphasis on interior and exterior, by the building of the Pantheon. The Pantheon is massive in size with huge columns along the façade, which invite the viewer inward to see what is behind the shadow of the grand entrance. Once you enter the Pantheon, you are hit with the massiveness and bright light flowing from the hole in the center of the dome. The building was distinct from any other building by becoming a sundial when the sun was above and dome form that was not very common in that time due to the complicated structure. The dome and façade influenced architecture today by the building of the Capital building in Washington, DC. The most prominent idea in architecture was the difference between male and female. The Tower of Trajan represented the male form while the Aqueducts were the female form by the exhibit of the genital areas characterized in the structures. The Egyptians used the male and female form also through the dominating pyramids compared to the temples for women. The Pyramid at Giza built by Khufu was surrounded by smaller pyramids, which represented his wives and servants that did not compare to him in society. Architecture influences society by the idea of male and female dominance and the emphasis on interior and exterior. The use of columns was also a huge part of Egyptian, Greek, and Roman architecture and still influences architecture today.

Wednesday, February 25, 2009


Presence: The Roman Empire began using Villas with courtyards, or halls. The courtyards were the center of the houses and framed by Doric columns. Mostly the courtyards were used to hide servants from the public eye and from being seen by neighbors. The inclusion of the hall ultimately became an integral part of residential planning as noted in manor houses of the nobility and gentry (Blakemore 69). The hall was usually two stories in height and was located at ground level or on the first floor above ground level (Blakemore 71). These uninterrupted open spaces could be expansive in influential households (Blakemore 71). Communal living was organized around the hall in early medieval houses. The lord, with his retainers and tenants, used it for sleeping, dining, recreation, administration of justice, calls to arms, ritual, reception of guests, and living room (Blakemore 71). The presence of these halls or courtyards really exemplified the Roman style and became an example for many new structures, such as castles and buildings today, but are now called parlors or family rooms.
Precedent: The Roman Empire used the Feudal system and Middle Ages as precedents for its own architecture. In the early Middle Ages, castles were one response to unsettled conditions under which precedence was given to fortification (Blakemore 69). The Feudal system and prevailing unsettled conditions were the major integrally related factors influencing domestic building of the Middle Ages (Blakemore 68). Precedents were used as an idea for construction. Just like for the precedent analysis, we had to choose a structure that changed architecture and gave an idea or model for future architecture.
Moments: Moments can be characterized by the way that people interact in a space or with a form of architecture. The origin of the parlor is uncertain but it is known that early in the Middle Ages these spaces were part of the monastic dwelling; documentary evidence points to secular use of the parlor by the latter part of the 14th century (Blakemore 72). Just like the living room or the kitchen is the center of a household, the parlor was the center of all the action during the Middle Ages. While architecturally insignificant, serving rooms were highly important in the operations of the household (Blakemore 73). These included such spaces as kitchen, buttery, pantry, bake houses, slaughterhouses, brewery, etc. (Blakemore 73). The way that the people interacted in these spaces, whether by cooking or recreation, made small moments that created the atmosphere of the room around them.
Duality: Duality is the combination of two things in one, much like Roman baths were used for a gathering spot for the town and mainly for a place to bathe. Much like the pools of today, where people gather to socialize. The studio projects represented duality by the pathways exemplified and also the word that the structure is describing. For my project, I created a white spiral staircase with a black paper ribbon wrapped around it. The black represents the evil in the story “Fundevogel”, while the white staircase represents the good that is beating the black to the tip of the point. My structure shows duality by relating to the story and also creating a sense of hierarchy.
Metric: The metric system was used in the way that the Roman baths were built. They were large in scale with consideration toward the amount of people able to participate at once. The surroundings were decorated with arches that span the entire outer edge of the structure. The structure is extremely tall as seen from the scale of the people in the picture compared to the height of the walkways. These buildings are large in scale much like most Roman architecture.

Summary: The Romans used precedents for ideas toward structures, then the metric system and form to build the structure. Their buildings had a presence and duality that invited people to come and create moments in the space.