Wednesday, February 18, 2009
Parts to a Whole
Archetype: Prototype: Hybrid- Archetype is the model of an idea for a structure, while the prototype is the actual structure after construction. Hybrid encompasses all the elements of the archetype and prototype, which can be more than one specific thing that makes up the whole composition. Much like the Greeks who created the prototype for their buildings then used the natural and physical elements around it and in it to make it into a hybrid. In contrast to Greek architecture, which can be described as sculptural masses set in balanced contrast to the landscape, Roman architecture, as Heinz Kahler has noted, is an architecture of space, enclosed internal space and outdoor space, on a grand scale (Roth 247). The Romans made their buildings into hybrids by combining all the aspects of the building and allowing it to encompass every detail.Source- The Greeks created some of the most prominent pieces of architecture in the world. Major contributors to the development of Greek arts were the Dorians, Ionians, and Aeolians. These groups were at the forefront of Greek culture in the Hellenic period (Blakemore 26). Greek architecture has influenced today’s architecture, such as: the Capital building in Washington, D.C. or the government buildings and churches around the world. Future periods of design were influenced by the characteristics observed in classical Greek and Roman architecture (Blakemore 30). These were reflected in space planning, interior architecture, and furniture (Blakemore 30). Murals and furnishings seen in homes today could be influenced by Greek architecture with the drawings and paintings on walls in Greek homes.
Order- The Greeks and Romans used order mainly in the way they structured their buildings and temples. The role of orders was significant in defining spaces of the Greek interior; not only did they divide spaces horizontally but they were also instrumental in creating visual interest by the attention drawn to them vertically through decorative detail in the capitals and in the entablature (Blakemore 28). The classical orders consist of the column with its base, shaft, capital, and entablature, and are classified by the capital as Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, or Composite (Blakemore 28). Columns for the Greeks and Romans were practically the backbone for the buildings, they made up the frame and structure of many of their buildings. Great emphasis was placed on the style of the columns for different spaces. Proportions of columns, entablatures, moldings, and ornament varied among the orders and in their renditions as practiced by the Greeks and Romans (Blakemore 30).
Entourage- The Acropolis is made up of the Parthenon, Propylaia, Erechtheion, and the Temple of Athena Nike. Every four years a Pan-Hellenic procession hikes from the city to the Acropolis to honor Athena. There may be an entourage that heads up the mountain every four years, but the Acropolis itself can be an entourage. The Propylaia is the elaborate entrance way welcomes the people to the Acropolis. The Parthenon is the largest building and is one of the first buildings that is seen when walking into the Acropolis. The Erechtheion is the connection between the city and the Acropolis by facing the city while facing the Parthenon on the opposite side. Finally, the smallest building is the Temple of Athena Nike which is the messenger to Athena that the people are coming to visit. All of these buildings connect to one another in different ways which creates an entourage of buildings that all interact.
Heirarchy- Heirarchy for the Greeks and Romans was based upon status in society for the buildings as well as the homes. The decorations and building structures were based upon social status and hierarchy. Treatment of floors ranged from the simply utilitarian to decorative (Blakemore 34). Compacted earth floors were used by families of all economic levels, but wealthier homeowners of the classical period often used plaster, painting, or mosaic (Blakemore 34).
Summary- Greek and Roman architecture were influenced by hierarchy. They created orders for columns that represented importance and style taken from the Dorians, Ionians, and Aeolians whom they used as a resource for most of their building projects. They were an archetype and prototype for the modern world by building structures that are architecturally sound and highly innovative. They were also an example of hybrid building by their use of many different aspects in each of their buildings with columns, decorative elements, and use of space within the structure. Their buildings still stand the test of time and bring in entourages of people to experience their wonder.